The Quran in East and West: Manuscripts and Printed Books

Introduction > Muslim-Christian Relations

c.638   Muslim troops conquered the Byzantine city Jerusalem

711      The fall of the last Visigothic kingdom marked the beginning of Muslim rule on the Spanish peninsula

1072    The first Turkish principality was established in Anatolia

1099    The First Crusade conquered Jerusalem

1144    The fall of Edessa triggered the Second Crusade

1212    The first decisive victory of Christian armies in Spain

1244    The Crusaders lost finally control of Jerusalem when the city was again reconquered by the Ayyubids

1453    The fall of Constantinople and the end of the Byzantine empire

1492    The fall of Granada, the last Muslim principality on the Spanish peninsula, led to the expulsion of both Jews and Muslims

1492    The first voyage of Christopher Columbus led to the discovery of the Americas

1498    Vasco da Gama’s fleet reached Kozhikode (Calicut) in the Malibar region of Kerala (India)

1501    The Safavid dynasty established the first Twelver-ShiÊ¿ite state in Iran

1517    The Ottoman conquest of Syria and Egypt made the central Arab lands Ottoman provinces, and Ottomans and Safavids shared henceforth a common border in southern Iraq

1529    The first Ottoman siege of Vienna, the Habsburg capital

1536    The French obtained trading privileges from the Ottoman Empire

1581    The British obtained trading privileges from the Ottoman Empire

1601    The British East India Company commenced its activities in India

1612    The Dutch obtained trading privileges from the Ottoman Empire

1699    The peace treaty between the Ottoman and the Hapsburg empires, Poland, and Venice, signed at Sremski Karlovci (Karlowitz), following the Ottoman defeat in 1697, marked the beginning of the political disintegration of the Ottoman Empire

1798    The French army occupied the Ottoman province Egypt in order to protect French trade interests in the Mediterranean against their British rivals

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