Founded in Oakland, California in 1966, the Black Panther Party earned national attention for its radical vision of black nationalism and its confrontations with local police. Famous for its revolutionary rhetoric, hairstyles, wardrobe, and a commitment to armed self-defense, the Panthers grew from a local group of fewer than a hundred members to a national – and international – presence with chapters around the country. Panther writings and speeches demanded socialism for the cities, while members provided free breakfasts for school children as well as local health care, including testing for sickle-cell anemia.
The Black Panther Party for Self-Defense
Black Panther, 1969